The clinical diagnosis of PE is also highly nonspecific because the clinical features may be simulated by other cardiorespiratory or musculoskeletal disorders. 3 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 Accordingly, the diagnosis should always be confirmed by objective tests.Hull R, Hirsh J, Jay RM, Carter C, England C, Gent M, Turpie AGG, McLoughlin D, Dodd P, Thomas M, Raskob G, Ockelford P.Efficacy of real-time B-mode ultrasonography versus impedance plethysmography in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis in symptomatic outpatients.Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia: a prospective comparison of bovine lung heparin, manufactured by a new process, and porcine intestinal heparin.There is a relation between bleeding and both heparin dose and anticoagulant effect. 285 286 287 293 294 Bleeding is greater when heparin is administered by intermittent intravenous injection. 162 288.Impedance plethysmography is insensitive to calf vein thrombosis, detecting.The aPTT should be checked regularly, because heparin requirements may vary as pregnancy progresses.
Retinal vein thrombosis in a patient with pernicious anemia and anticardiolipin antibodies.Colour Doppler ultrasound in deep venous thrombosis: a comparison with venography.
Recurrent bilateral pleural effusions secondary to superior vena cava obstruction as a complication of central venous catheterization.In patients considered to be at high risk for thrombotic complications, an intravenous heparin infusion can be started after discontinuation of subcutaneous heparin.
Heparin-associated thrombocytopenia: a prospective evaluation of 211 patients.To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital.Patients with antiphospholipid antibodies and venous thrombosis should receive long term anticoagulant treatment.
The distinction between expression of the anticoagulant and antithrombotic effects of warfarin is discussed in a subsequent section of this report.
An INR of 3.0 to 4.0 has been recommended for patients with antiphospholipid antibodies, 171 172 173 although there is some disagreement on this issue. 174.The effect of low molecular weight heparin on survival in patients with advanced malignancy.Upper-extremity venous thrombosis is classified as primary and secondary.Thus, it is possible that with some PT reagents the INR result is artifactually prolonged by the lupus anticoagulant and therefore does not reflect the true anticoagulant effects of warfarin.In addition, a chest radiograph is required for proper interpretation of the perfusion lung scan. 137 138.Instead, it would be reasonable to use anticoagulant therapy for 6 weeks in patients with a reversible risk factor and to continue anticoagulation for up to 6 months in patients with idiopathic venous thrombosis.The macroaggregates are trapped in the pulmonary capillary bed and their distribution, which reflects the distribution of lung blood flow, is recorded with an external photoscanner.
Hull RD, Raskob GE, Carter CJ, Coates G, Gill GJ, Sackett DL, Hirsh J, Thompson M.
A comprehensive prospective follow-up study examining long-term prognosis in consecutive patients with a first episode of documented symptomatic DVT of the leg was recently completed by Prandoni and associates. 33 The study assessed the long-term incidence of recurrent venous thromboembolism and postthrombotic syndrome.Thrombosis of the superficial veins of the legs usually occurs in varicosities and is benign and self-limiting.Outpatient adults with suspected acute deep venous thrombosis.Adjusted-dose heparin is given subcutaneously in a dose of 3500 U three times daily, starting 2 days before surgery.Antithrombotic Therapy for VTE Disease: CHEST Guideline. 0.Demers C, Ginsberg JS, Brill-Edwards P, Panju A, Warkentin TE, Anderson DR, Turner C, Kelton JG.
Anderson DR, Lensing AWA, Wells PS, Levine MN, Weitz JI, Hirsh J.Outcome of abnormal impedance plethysmography results in patients with proximal-vein thrombosis: frequency of return to normal.Incidence and risk factors for thrombotic complications in a historical cohort of 100 patients with essential thrombocythemia.The most common indication for venous interruption in patients with DVT or PE is anticoagulant-induced bleeding or anticipation of hemorrhagic complications in a patient with a predisposing lesion, such as a bleeding peptic ulcer, gastrointestinal malignancy, recent intracranial operation, or an underlying hemorrhagic state (eg, liver failure or thrombocytopenia).
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