Antiphospholipid antibodies: anticardiolipin and the lupus anticoagulant in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and in non-SLE disorders: prevalence and clinical significance.The most important risk factor for bleeding is recent surgery or trauma.
Controversies in the Management of Venous Disorders: Scandinavian Contributions on Venous Problems With Comments by International Authorities.Pulmonary embolectomy, heparin, and streptokinase: their place in the treatment of acute massive pulmonary embolism.The fibrinolytic enzymes streptokinase, urokinase, and TPA accelerate the rate of dissolution of thrombi and emboli.
Detection of deep-vein thrombosis by real-time B-mode ultrasonography.Patients may present with clinical features of minor or major PE.Long-term venous access through a central venous catheter is required for treatment of long-term disorders requiring chemotherapy, antibiotics, or hyperalimentation.Warkentin TE, Hayward CPM, Boshkov LK, Santos AV, Sheppard JA, Bode AP, Kelton JG.Review of deep vein thrombosis including risk factors, physiology, diagnosis, wells score, provoked vs unprovoked, risk of recurrent dvt, post-thrombotic syndrome.New diagnostic modalities and therapeutic agents have been developed that are more effective, less expensive, and more convenient.Broekmans AW, Bertina RM, Loeliger EA, Hofmann V, Klingemann HG.
A second approach, which is complementary to the first, is to look for a source of PE in the deep veins of the leg with either venous ultrasound or venography.STANDARDS OF PRACTICE Quality Improvement Guidelines for the Treatment of Lower-Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis with Use of Endovascular Thrombus Removal.With PE, the ECG is often normal or shows nonspecific changes. 135 136 In patients with pericarditis or acute myocardial infarction, ECG changes may be diagnostic.Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and acute pulmonary embolism (PE) are two manifestations of venous thromboembolism (VTE).Reversible interruption of inferior vena cava by means of a balloon catheter: preliminary report.Bentley PG, Kakkar VV, Scully MF, MacGregor IR, Webb P, Chan P, Jones N.Patients frequently have a history of multiple hospital admissions for treatment of alleged recurrent venous thrombosis.
Thrombosis and Hemostasis: Basic Principles and Clinical Practice.Optimal duration of oral anticoagulant therapy: a randomized trial comparing four weeks with three months of warfarin in patients with proximal deep vein thrombosis.Heparin: Chemical and Biological Properties, Clinical Applications.Evaluation of a new treatment strategy for Paget-Schroetter syndrome: spontaneous thrombosis of the axillary-subclavian vein.Patients who sustain a massive embolism or have impaired cardiorespiratory reserve and sustain a moderate-sized embolus may present with hypotension, syncope, and peripheral circulatory failure.Estelles A, Garcia-Plaza I, Dasi A, Aznar K, Duart M, Sanz G, Perez-Requejo JL, Espana F, Jimenez C, Abeledo G.Both arterial and venous thromboses occur in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome.Low incidence of thrombocytopenia with porcine mucosal heparin: a prospective multicenter study.
A 52-year-old woman with no history of venous thromboembolism presents with a four-day history of discomfort in her left calf.Venous thrombosis is a condition in which a blood clot (thrombus) forms in a vein.Effect of adding heparin in very low concentration to the infusate to prolong the patency of umbilical artery catheters.At present, however, there is insufficient evidence to support lifelong treatment for all patients with idiopathic thrombosis.Upper-extremity venous thrombosis is classified as primary and secondary.Treatment of patients with warfarin-induced skin necrosis who require anticoagulant therapy for an indefinite period is difficult.The primary antiphospholipid syndrome: major clinical and serological features.Pini M, Pattachini C, Quintavalla R, Poli T, Megha A, Tagliaferri A, Manotti C, Dettori AG.
Sethi GK, Copeland JG, Goldman S, Moritz T, Zadina K, Henderson WG.The rate of conversion is different for IPG and venous ultrasonography.Venous thrombosis during pregnancy: leg and trimester of presentation.In such patients, venous ultrasonography or venography is useful because a positive result allows a diagnosis of VTE to be made.Doyle DJ, Turpie AGG, Hirsh J, Best C, Kinch D, Levine MN, Gent M.Venous stasis predisposes the patient to local thrombosis by impairing the clearance of activated coagulation factors and limiting the accessibility of thrombin formed in veins to endothelial protein thrombomodulin, which is present in greatest density in the capillaries.Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital—weekly clinicopathological exercises: case 11-1990, a 38-year-old woman with fever, skin lesions, thrombocytopenia, and venous thromboses.This guideline updates a previous version: Finnish Medical Society Duodecim.
Familial thrombophilia due to a previously unrecognized mechanism characterized by poor anticoagulant response to activated protein C: prediction of a cofactor to activated protein C.The diagnosis of acute, recurrent, deep-vein thrombosis: a diagnostic challenge.The most common indication for venous interruption in patients with DVT or PE is anticoagulant-induced bleeding or anticipation of hemorrhagic complications in a patient with a predisposing lesion, such as a bleeding peptic ulcer, gastrointestinal malignancy, recent intracranial operation, or an underlying hemorrhagic state (eg, liver failure or thrombocytopenia).Deep vein thrombosis is a major complication in orthopedic surgical patients and patients with cancer and other chronic illnesses.
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